Smoking and your feet
DR. MONIQUE MITCHELL
Published: May 21, 2013
Smoking cigarettes has long been known to have detrimental health effects on the body, contributing to problems such as heart disease and lung cancer. Smoking can also have many lesser known but just as deadly health effects on the feet. The feet are the farthest part of the body from the heart and the blood flow can be severely decreased by smoking, causing many effects on the skin and bones on the feet.
Smoking elevates the levels of nicotine in the blood which causes the blood vessels to constrict or get small. Nicotine, one of the toxic components of tobacco smoke, constricts blood vessels by approximately one quarter of their normal diameter. Because of the constriction of the vessels, decreased levels of nutrients and oxygen are supplied to the parts of the body including the skin and bones of the feet. Similarly, carbon monoxide, another toxic component in tobacco smoke, reduces oxygen flow through the body, thus reducing the supply of oxygen needed by damaged cells to regenerate and heal. Smoking contributes to developing Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) in which the arteries are hardened and blood flow is further decreased to the legs and feet. This lack of blood flow can lead to delayed healing of ulcers, infections and amputations to the lower leg.
Exposure to cigarette smoke decreases capillary and arteriolar blood flow, damaging skin cells and connective tissues that help maintain healthy skin. It is well known that smoking is associated with premature skin aging and wrinkles on the face but it can do the same on the feet. The skin loses elasticity and many fine red lines are seen in the skin. Smoking tobacco decreases the ability of skin to heal and repair wounds. This is particularly evident after the patients undergo surgery. Smoking reduces the moisture in the skin leading to dry skin. Dry skin can feel uncomfortable because it is less flexible, it becomes unattractive and may take on a red, flaky or scaly appearance. It is also more likely to crack or itch. Many smokers will have thickened, dry, scaly skin on the bottom of their feet, often with painful corns and thick calluses that dramatically clear up once they stop smoking. Smoking also increases the risk of skin cancer One study found that cigarette and pipe smokers were twice as likely as non-smokers to develop squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. The Nurses' Health Study found that nurses who smoked were also 50 percent more likely to develop squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, compared to non-smoking nurses. Tobacco smoke exposure also increases the risk of developing psoriasis.
Smokers are a high-risk group under any circumstances, but particularly so during and after surgery. Many dangers face smokers after surgery including longer healing times, blood clots, wounds that break open and a greater risk of infection. Perhaps the most serious threat to smokers who have foot and ankle surgery, however, is non-union or failure of the bone to mend. Smokers are four times more likely to experience non-union than non-smokers. The bone healing rates of smokers, revealed that smokers took nearly 50 percent longer to heal after surgery or a fracture than non-smokers and often the bones of some failed to heal at all.
Non-healing bone is very serious, they are painful, costly and time-consuming. It can take a long time to heal after surgery or fracture leading to extended time in crutches or immobilized. In some cases, bones that fail to mend can be treated with a non-surgical bone stimulating device. If the bone still does not heal, they will need more surgery. Options include using metal screws or plates to stabilize the bone, external fixation or bone grafts.
Smoking can be very dangerous everyday and in those who are undergoing foot and ankle surgery because it is so detrimental to healing bone and skin. It goes without saying that surgeons prefer patients to quit smoking to improve healing. Often, smoking cessation is required before surgery and the surgery can be delayed or canceled if the patient continues to smoke. It is critical for persons to understand the dangers of smoking — delayed bone and skin healing, bone non-union and possibly more surgery.
The effect of smoking on health especially in the feet is well-known to have significant negative impact. If you are a smoker, you are encouraged to stop smoking especially if you are planning to undergo foot and ankle surgery. It is not easy to overcome a smoking/nicotine addiction however, there are many methods to assist with smoking cessation including gums, patches, electronic cigarettes, medications and many others. Contact your primary care physicians and request assistance. It is worth it to stop smoking to ensure healing and good functioning of your feet.
• If you are a smoker and would like to quit, see your primary care (clinic) physician for assistance. You don’t have to do it alone. For more information on smoking cessation email us at firstname.lastname@example.org or visit www.foothealth.org. To see a podiatrist visit Bahamas Foot Centre on Rosetta Street or call 325-2996 or Bahamas Surgical Associates on Albury Lane or call 394-5820 for an appointment.
• For more information email us at email@example.com or visit us at www.apma.org, foothealth.org or feetforlife.org. To see a podiatrist, visit Bahamas Foot Centre, Rosetta Street or call 325-2996 or at Bahamas Surgical Associates, Albury Lane or call 394-5820 for an appointment today.